Federal Judge’s Groundbreaking Use of ChatGPT in Legal Decision-Making




Federal judge in courtroom with ChatGPT hologram, representing AI's role in legal decision-making.

In a landmark move, Judge Kevin Newsom of the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals has utilized ChatGPT, an AI-powered large language model, to aid in his decision-making process. This unprecedented step has sparked discussions on the potential role of artificial intelligence in the judicial system.

Key Takeaways

  • Judge Kevin Newsom used ChatGPT to determine the ordinary meaning of the term "landscaping."
  • The case involved an insurance dispute over the installation of an in-ground trampoline.
  • Newsom’s use of AI has been both praised and criticized, highlighting the evolving role of technology in law.

The Case at Hand

The case revolved around an insurance company that refused to cover a landscaper policyholder in a negligence claim related to the installation of an in-ground trampoline. The central question was whether installing a trampoline could be considered "landscaping" under the policy terms.

Judge Newsom’s Approach

Judge Newsom admitted that he initially found the idea of using ChatGPT absurd. However, he reconsidered after realizing that AI systems trained on vast amounts of data could provide a more "ordinary" answer than traditional legal research methods.

"Is it absurd to think that ChatGPT might be able to shed some light on what the term ‘landscaping’ means? Initially, I answered my own question in the affirmative: Yes, Kevin, that is positively absurd. But the longer and more deeply I considered it, the less absurd it seemed," Newsom wrote.

Benefits of Using AI in Legal Interpretation

Newsom outlined several benefits of using large language models (LLMs) like ChatGPT for legal interpretation:

  • Ordinary-Language Inputs: LLMs are trained on everyday language, making them suitable for ordinary-meaning analysis.
  • Context Understanding: LLMs can understand context, which is crucial for legal interpretation.
  • Accessibility: These tools are readily accessible to judges, lawyers, and ordinary citizens.
  • Transparency: LLM research is relatively transparent compared to traditional dictionaries.
  • Empirical Advantages: LLMs hold advantages over other empirical interpretive methods.

Ethical Considerations and Future Implications

While Newsom’s use of ChatGPT has been praised for its innovative approach, it has also raised ethical concerns. Critics worry about the potential for AI to "hallucinate" or generate incorrect information. However, Newsom believes that these issues are not "conversation stoppers" and that the technology is improving.

"Nor do I think that AI outputs will put the legal world ‘on some dystopian path toward ‘robo judges’ algorithmically resolving human disputes.’ The law will always require ‘gray area’ decision-making involving human judgment," Newsom stated.


Judge Kevin Newsom’s use of ChatGPT in legal decision-making marks a significant step in integrating AI into the judicial process. While it has sparked both praise and criticism, it undeniably opens the door for further exploration of AI’s role in law.

As technology continues to evolve, the legal field may see more judges and lawyers considering AI as a tool to aid in their work, potentially transforming how legal interpretations are made in the future.


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